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A mass spectrometric platform for the quantitation of sulfur mustard-induced nucleic acid adducts as mechanistically relevant biomarkers of exposure

TitleA mass spectrometric platform for the quantitation of sulfur mustard-induced nucleic acid adducts as mechanistically relevant biomarkers of exposure
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsZubel T., Hochgesand S., John H., Steinritz D., Schmidt A., Burkle A., Mangerich A.
JournalArch Toxicol
Volume93
Issue1
Pagination61-79
Date PublishedJan
ISBN Number0340-5761 (Linking)
Accession Number30324314
KeywordsBIOMARKER, DNA Damage, Mass Spectrometry, S-lost, Sulfur Mustard
Abstract

Despite its worldwide ban, the warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) still represents a realistic threat, due to potential release in terroristic attacks and asymmetric conflicts. Therefore, the rigorous and quantitative detection of SM exposure is crucial for diagnosis, health risk assessment, and surveillance of international law. Alkylation adducts of nucleic acids can serve as valuable toxicologically relevant 'biomarkers of SM exposure'. Here, we developed a robust and versatile bioanalytical platform based on isotope dilution UPLC-MS/MS to quantify major SM-induced DNA and RNA adducts, as well as adducts induced by the monofunctional mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. We synthesized (15)N/(13)C-labeled standards, which allowed absolute quantitation with full chemical specificity and subfemtomole sensitivities. DNA and RNA mono-alkylation adducts and crosslinks were carefully analyzed in a dose- and time-dependent manner in various matrices, including human cancer and primary cells, derived of the main SM-target tissues. Nucleic acid adducts were detected up to 6 days post-exposure, indicating long persistence, which highlights their toxicological relevance and proves their suitability as forensic and medical biomarkers. Finally, we investigated ex vivo-treated rat skin biopsies and human blood samples, which set the basis for the implementation into the method portfolio of Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons-designated laboratories to analyze authentic samples from SM-exposed victims.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30324314
DOI10.1007/s00204-018-2324-7
Short TitleA mass spectrometric platform for the quantitation of sulfur mustard-induced nucleic acid adducts as mechanistically relevant biomarkers of exposure

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