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Current status of the acquired immune system of Iranian patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning

TitleCurrent status of the acquired immune system of Iranian patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsBalali-Mood M., Riahi-Zanjani B., Mahmoudi M., Sadeghi M.
ISBN Number1560-8115 (Linking)
Accession Number30715678
KeywordsAcquired immunity, Adaptive immune system, LYMPHOCYTES, Sulfur Mustard, Veterans

BACKGROUND: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a powerful blistering chemical warfare agent that has genotoxic effects. Cells with excessive proliferation such as lymphocytes may inherit this cellular toxicity which can lead to their malfunctions in the long-term. This study was designed to evaluate the status of acquired immunity among SM poisoned veterans around three decades after exposure. METHODS: Thirty five male Iranian veterans having at least 25% disability due to SM poisoning with long-term complications in the respiratory system, skin or eyes were investigated. Non-functional/functional tests including hematological parameters, immunostaining analysis, lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytokine profile, and levels of total serum IgM, IgG and IgA were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that most of the parameters of adaptive immune system of the veterans were currently within the normal ranges. However, changes in the proliferation index (PI) of lymphocytes showed problems with the lymphocytes which cannot be proliferated appropriately. PI values for PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) in presence of PHA (Phytohemagglutinin-A) and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) mitogens were 1.16 +/- 0.14 and 1.13 +/- 0.07, respectively which are less than expected. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results gathered in this study, most of the parameters of acquired immunity were normal. However, the observed failure of lymphocyte functions may disrupt physiological activity of whole immune system leading to long-term complications; including recurrent respiratory tract infections. Indeed, further cellular and molecular studies with regard to lymphocytes function are required to better understand the status of adaptive immunity in these patients. Graphical abstract .


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