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Sulfur Mustard-Induced Ocular Injuries: Update on Mechanisms and Management

TitleSulfur Mustard-Induced Ocular Injuries: Update on Mechanisms and Management
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPanahi Y., Roshandel D., Sadoughi M.M, Ghanei M., Sahebkar A.
JournalCurr Pharm Des
Volume23
Issue11
Pagination1589-1597
ISBN Number1381-6128 (Linking)
Accession Number27774903
Keywords*chronic and delayed-onset keratopathy, *Eye, *Mustard gas keratopathy, *stem cell transplantation, *sulfur mustard, Chemical Warfare Agents/*adverse effects, Eye Injuries/*chemically induced/drug therapy/physiopathology, Humans, Mustard Gas/*adverse effects
Abstract

Sulfur mustard (SM; mustard gas) is a classic chemical warfare agent that has been used in several wars and is still a potential threat especially in the Middle-East region. Victims experience acute symptoms in airexposed organs including skin, respiratory tract and the eyes. Survivors of the acute stage might develop chronic or delayed-onset complications in the exposed organs. The exact mechanism(s) of SM-induced tissue damage is still unknown, however DNA alkylation and oxidative damage are the most relevant mechanisms. Eye is the most sensitive organ to the SM vapor and ocular symptoms usually precede other manifestations. Ocular findings including blepharitis, dry eye disease, corneal vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, limbal ischemia, limbal stem cell deficiency, corneal thinning, corneal opacity and corneal innervation abnormalities have been reported several years after SM exposure. In this review, mechanisms of acute and chronic/delayed ocular manifestations of SM and their current management and potential future therapies have been discussed. We have also included recent advances in amniotic membrane transplantation, cultivated stem cell transplantation and anti-angiogenic therapies which might be considered as therapeutic options in SM-induced ocular damage in the future.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27774903
DOI10.2174/1381612822666161021150125
Short TitleSulfur Mustard-Induced Ocular Injuries: Update on Mechanisms and Management

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