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Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard and Therapeutic Approaches

TitleOcular Effects of Sulfur Mustard and Therapeutic Approaches
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPanahi Y., Rajaee S.M, Sahebkar A.
JournalJ Cell Biochem
Date PublishedNov
ISBN Number0730-2312 (Linking)
Accession Number28106291
Keywords*Limbal stem cell deficiency, *Mustard Gas, *Mustard gas keratopathy, *Ocular lesion, *sulfur mustard, Alkylation, Conjunctiva/metabolism/pathology, Cornea/metabolism/pathology, Eye Diseases/*chemically induced/*metabolism/pathology/*therapy, Female, Humans, Male, Mustard Gas/*toxicity

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong blistering, highly reactive, lipophilic chemical war agent that causes injury in different organs including the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. The Eyes are especially susceptible to the consequences of SM poisoning because of the aqueous and mucosal nature of conjunctiva and cornea. DNA alkylation and depletion of glutathione, are the most important mechanisms of SM action in the eye injuries. Acute clinical symptoms are including decrease in visual acuity, dryness, photophobia, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, and complaints of foreign body sensation and soreness that gradually progress to severe ocular pain. Corneal abrasions, ulcerations, vesication, and perforations are common corneal consequences in SM injured victims. Appearance of chronic symptoms has been reported as chronic inflammation of the corneal and conjunctival vasculature, ischemia, lipid and cholesterol deposition, scarring in cornea, corneal thinning, opacification and perforation of the cornea, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), and neovascularization. Different medical and surgical protocols have been documented in the management of SM-induced ocular injuries, including preservative-free artificial tears, topical steroids and antibiotic, mydriatic, antiglaucoma drops, therapeutic contact lenses, dark glasses and punctal plugs/cauterization, N-acetylcysteine, tarsorrhaphy, amniotic membrane transplantation, stem cell transplantation, and corneal transplantation. New drugs such as resolvin E1, topical form of essential fatty acids, thymosin beta4, 43 amino-acid polypeptides, topical form of curcumin, newly formulated artificial tears, diquafosol, rebamipide, tretinoin, and oral uridineseems to be beneficial in the management of ocular lesion associated with sulfur mustard poisoning. Further studies are needed to approve these drugs in SM victims. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3549-3560, 2017. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Short TitleOcular Effects of Sulfur Mustard and Therapeutic Approaches

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