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Investigating Prevalence and Pattern of Long-term Cardiovascular Disorders in Sulphur Mustard-exposed Victims and Determining Proper Biomarkers for Early Defining, Monitoring and Analysis of Patients' Feedback on Therapy

TitleInvestigating Prevalence and Pattern of Long-term Cardiovascular Disorders in Sulphur Mustard-exposed Victims and Determining Proper Biomarkers for Early Defining, Monitoring and Analysis of Patients' Feedback on Therapy
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsDarvishi B., Panahi Y., Ghanei M., Farahmand L.
JournalBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol
Volume120
Issue2
Pagination120-130
Date PublishedFeb
ISBN Number1742-7835 (Linking)
Accession Number27607565
KeywordsAnti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use, Antidotes/therapeutic use, Biomarkers/metabolism, Cardiovascular Diseases/*chemically induced/diagnosis/epidemiology/metabolism, Chemical Warfare Agents/*poisoning, Cytokines/metabolism, Early Diagnosis, Humans, Inflammation Mediators/metabolism, Mustard Gas/*poisoning, Oxidative stress, Predictive Value of Tests, Prevalence, Prognosis, Time Factors
Abstract

Among the most readily existing chemical warfare agents, sulphur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is the most commonly used agent owing to its ease of synthesis and stockpiling. Unprotected exposure mostly results in debilitation rather than lethal injuries, leaving an exposed victim incapacitated for days to even months. Although acute toxicity of sulphur mustard has been fairly established, the long-term post-exposure effects either chronic or short-term but significant are still evolving. A total of 30,000 Iranian victims of the Iran-Iraq imposed war have now - after 30 years - formed the key population demonstrating long-term effects from sulphur mustard exposure. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence of several long-term cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) has significantly increased among SM-exposed victims including coronary artery disorders (CAD), coronary artery ectasia (CAE), congestive heart failure (CHF) and myocardium abnormalities. The more important point is the lack of a determinant biomarker for early screening, recognizing, treating, monitoring and estimating exposed victims' response to applied therapy. Additionally, unidentified risk factors significantly decrease the chance of a successful therapy and result in undesired failure of a comprehensive therapeutic strategy. In this MiniReview, we examined the literature in detail to evaluate relevant reports considering long-term cardiovascular complications of SM, detecting possible risk factors and determining possible preventing events.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27607565
DOI10.1111/bcpt.12666
Short TitleInvestigating Prevalence and Pattern of Long-term Cardiovascular Disorders in Sulphur Mustard-exposed Victims and Determining Proper Biomarkers for Early Defining, Monitoring and Analysis of Patients' Feedback on Therapy

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