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Recent Publications of Rutgers University CounterACT Research Center of Excellence Members

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=Laskin JD OR Laskin DL OR Marion MK OR Gerecke DR OR Heindel ND OR Heck DE OR Sinko PJ
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Long-term Respiratory Effects of Mustard Vesicants.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 11:48

Long-term Respiratory Effects of Mustard Vesicants.

Toxicol Lett. 2019 Nov 04;:

Authors: Malaviya R, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Sulfur mustard and related vesicants are cytotoxic alkylating agents that cause severe damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is progressive leading, over time, to asthma, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, airway stenosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. As there are no specific therapeutics available for victims of mustard gas poisoning, current clinical treatments mostly provide only symptomatic relief. In this article, the long-term effects of mustards on the respiratory tract are described in humans and experimental animal models in an effort to define cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to lung injury and disease pathogenesis. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity induced by mustards may help in identifying potential targets for the development of effective clinical therapeutics aimed at mitigating their adverse effects.

PMID: 31698045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis in mice following exposure to nitrogen mustard.

Mon, 11/04/2019 - 18:33
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Lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis in mice following exposure to nitrogen mustard.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019 Oct 30;:114798

Authors: Sunil VR, Vayas KN, Abramova EV, Rancourt R, Cervelli JA, Malaviya R, Goedken M, Venosa A, Gow AJ, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a cytotoxic vesicant known to cause acute lung injury which progresses to fibrosis. Herein, we developed a murine model of NM-induced pulmonary toxicity with the goal of assessing inflammatory mechanisms of injury. C57Bl6/J mice were euthanized 1-28 d following intratracheal exposure to NM (0.08 mg/kg) or PBS control. NM caused progressive alveolar epithelial thickening, perivascular inflammation, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, interstitial fibroplasia and fibrosis, peaking 14 d post exposure. Enlarged foamy macrophages were also observed in the lung 14 d post NM, along with increased numbers of microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Following NM exposure, rapid and prolonged increases in BAL cells, protein, total phospholipids and surfactant protein (SP)-D were also detected. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD11b+Ly6G+F4/80+Ly6Chi proinflammatory macrophages accumulated in the lung after NM, peaking at 3 d. This was associated with macrophage expression of HMGB1 and TNFα in histologic sections. CD11b+Ly6G+F4/80+Ly6Clo anti-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic macrophages also increased in the lung after NM peaking at 14 d, a time coordinate with increases in TGFβ expression and fibrosis. NM exposure also resulted in alterations in pulmonary mechanics including increases in tissue elastance and decreases in compliance and static compliance, most prominently at 14 d. These findings demonstrate that NM induces structural and inflammatory changes in the lung that correlate with aberrations in pulmonary function. This mouse model will be useful for mechanistic studies of mustard lung injury and for assessing potential countermeasures.

PMID: 31678244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Protective Role of Surfactant Protein-D Against Lung Injury and Oxidative Stress Induced by Nitrogen Mustard.

Fri, 10/18/2019 - 10:11
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Protective Role of Surfactant Protein-D Against Lung Injury and Oxidative Stress Induced by Nitrogen Mustard.

Toxicol Sci. 2018 11 01;166(1):108-122

Authors: Sunil VR, Vayas KN, Cervelli JA, Ebramova EV, Gow AJ, Goedken M, Malaviya R, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a vesicant known to cause acute pulmonary injury which progresses to fibrosis. Macrophages contribute to both of these pathologies. Surfactant protein (SP)-D is a pulmonary collectin that suppresses lung macrophage activity. Herein, we analyzed the effects of loss of SP-D on NM-induced macrophage activation and lung toxicity. Wild-type (WT) and SP-D-/- mice were treated intratracheally with PBS or NM (0.08 mg/kg). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and tissue were collected 14 days later. In WT mice, NM caused an increase in total SP-D levels in BAL; multiple lower molecular weight forms of SP-D were also identified, consistent with lung injury and oxidative stress. Flow cytometric analysis of BAL cells from NM treated WT mice revealed the presence of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages. Whereas loss of SP-D had no effect on numbers of these cells, their activation state, as measured by proinflammatory (iNOS, MMP-9), and anti-inflammatory (MR-1, Ym-1) protein expression, was amplified. Loss of SP-D also exacerbated NM-induced oxidative stress and alveolar epithelial injury, as reflected by increases in heme oxygenase-1 expression, and BAL cell and protein content. This was correlated with alterations in pulmonary mechanics. In NM-treated SP-D-/-, but not WT mice, there was evidence of edema, epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia, bronchiectasis, and fibrosis, as well as increases in BAL phospholipid content. These data demonstrate that activated lung macrophages play a role in NM-induced lung injury and oxidative stress. Elucidating mechanisms regulating macrophage activity may be important in developing therapeutics to treat mustard-induced lung injury.

PMID: 30060251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effect of size and polymer architecture of doxorubicin-poly(ethylene) glycol conjugate nanocarriers on breast duct retention, potency and toxicity.

Thu, 08/29/2019 - 10:18
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The effect of size and polymer architecture of doxorubicin-poly(ethylene) glycol conjugate nanocarriers on breast duct retention, potency and toxicity.

Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018 08 30;121:118-125

Authors: Gu Z, Gao D, Al-Zubaydi F, Li S, Singh Y, Rivera K, Holloway J, Szekely Z, Love S, Sinko PJ

Abstract
Although systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents is routinely used for treating invasive breast cancer, the only therapeutic options for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are surgery and radiation. Treating DCIS by delivering drugs locally to the affected milk duct offers significant advantages over systemic administration, including reduced systemic and breast toxicities, as well as a greatly reduced need for surgery and radiation. In this study, mammary gland retention and toxicity of intraductally administered poly(ethylene) glycol-doxorubicin (PEG-DOX) polymeric conjugate nanocarriers of varying molecular sizes and architectures were investigated. Nanocarriers were formed by conjugating one or more copies of doxorubicin to PEG polymers, of varying molecular weights (5, 10, 20, and 40 kDa) and architectures (linear, four-arm and eight-arm). Cytotoxicity against MCF7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line, was assessed, and IC50 values were calculated. The nanocarriers were intraductally administered into the mammary glands of female retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole body images were captured using in vivo optical imaging, and changes in ductal structure as well local inflammation were monitored. Fluorescence intensities were monitored, over time, to evaluate nanocarrier mammary gland retention half-lives (t1/2). The IC50 values of PEG-DOX nanocarriers against MCF7 cells were 40 kDa PEG-(DOX)4 (1.23 μM) < 5 kDa PEG-DOX (1.76 μM) < 40 kDa PEG-(DOX)8 (3.49 μM) < 10 kDa PEG-DOX (3.86 μM) < 20 kDa PEG-DOX (8.96 μM) < 40 kDa PEG-DOX (18.11 μM), whereas the IC50 of free DOX was only 0.14 μM. The t1/2 of linear 5, 20, and 40 kDa nanocarriers were 2.2 ± 0.3, 3.6 ± 0.6, and 13.1 ± 3.4 h, whereas the retention t1/2 of 4- and 8-arm 40 kDa nanocarriers were 14.9 ± 5.6 h and 11.9 ± 2.9 h, respectively. The retention t1/2 of free doxorubicin was 2.0 ± 0.4 h, which was significantly shorter than that of the linear and branched 40 kDa PEG-DOX nanocarriers. Increased molecular weight and decreased branching both demonstrated a strong correlation to enhanced mammary gland retention. Intraductally administered free doxorubicin resulted in ductal damage, severe inflammation and generation of atypical cell neoplasms, whereas PEG-DOX nanocarriers induced only minor and transient inflammation (i.e., damaged epithelial cells and detached cellular debris). The 40 kDa 4-arm PEG-DOX nanocarrier demonstrated the longest ductal retention half-life, the lowest IC50 (i.e., most potent), and minimal ductal damage and inflammation. The current results suggest that PEG-DOX nanocarriers with prolonged ductal retention may present the best option for intraductal treatment of DCIS, due to their low local toxicity and potential for sustained therapeutic effect.

PMID: 29698706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anandamide down-regulates placental transporter expression through CB2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP synthesis.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 11:00
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Anandamide down-regulates placental transporter expression through CB2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP synthesis.

Pharmacol Res. 2019 03;141:331-342

Authors: Szilagyi JT, Composto-Wahler GM, Joseph LB, Wang B, Rosen T, Laskin JD, Aleksunes LM

Abstract
The BCRP/ABCG2 efflux transporter is expressed on the membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblasts and protects the fetus from toxicant exposure. Syncytiotrophoblasts arise from the fusion of cytotrophoblasts, a process negatively regulated by the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA). It is unknown whether AEA can influence fetal concentrations of xenobiotics by modulating the expression of transporters in syncytiotrophoblasts. Here, we sought to characterize and identify the mechanism(s) responsible for AEA-mediated down-regulation of the BCRP transporter in human placental explants and BeWo trophoblasts. Treatment of human placental explants with AEA (1 μM, 24 h) reduced hCGα, syncytin-1, and BCRP mRNAs by ˜30%. Similarly, treatment of BeWo trophoblasts with AEA (0-10 μM, 3-24 h) coordinately down-regulated mRNAs for hCGß, syncytin-2, and BCRP. In turn, AEA increased the sensitivity of trophoblasts to the cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone, a known BCRP substrate, and environmental and dietary contaminants including mycoestrogens and perfluorinated chemicals. AEA-treated trophoblasts also demonstrated reduced BCRP transport of the mycoestrogen zearalenone and the diabetes drug glyburide, labeled with BODIPY. The AEA-mediated reduction of BCRP mRNA was abrogated when placental cells were co-treated with AM630, a CB2 receptor inhibitor, or 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog. AEA reduced intracellular cAMP levels in trophoblasts by 75% at 1 h, and completely inhibited forskolin-induced phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). AEA also decreased p-CREB binding to the BCRP promoter. Taken together, our data indicate that AEA down-regulates placental transporter expression and activity via CB2-cAMP signaling. This novel mechanism may explain the repression of placental BCRP expression observed during diseases of pregnancy.

PMID: 30610963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Regulation of Macrophage Foam Cell Formation during Nitrogen Mustard (NM)-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Lung Lipids.

Wed, 08/21/2019 - 10:15
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Regulation of Macrophage Foam Cell Formation during Nitrogen Mustard (NM)-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Lung Lipids.

Toxicol Sci. 2019 Aug 19;:

Authors: Venosa A, Smith LC, Murray A, Banota T, Gow AJ, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a vesicant known to target the lung, causing acute injury which progresses to fibrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathologic response to NM. In these studies, we analyzed the role of lung lipids generated following NM exposure on macrophage activation and phenotype. Treatment of rats with NM (0.125 mg/kg, i.t.) resulted in a time-related increase in enlarged vacuolated macrophages in the lung. At 28 d post exposure, macrophages stained positively for Oil Red O, a marker of neutral lipids. This was correlated with an accumulation of oxidized phospholipids in lung macrophages and epithelial cells, and increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) phospholipids and cholesterol. RNA-sequencing and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that lipid handling pathways under the control of the transcription factors LXR, FXR, PPAR-ɣ and SREBP were significantly altered following NM exposure. Whereas at 1-3 d post NM, FXR and the downstream oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor, Cd36, were increased, Lxr and the lipid efflux transporters, Abca1 and Abcg1, were reduced. Treatment of naïve lung macrophages with phospholipid and cholesterol enriched large aggregate fractions of BAL prepared 3 d after NM exposure resulted in upregulation of Nos2 and Ptgs2, markers of pro-inflammatory activation, while large aggregate fractions prepared 28 d post NM upregulated expression of the anti-inflammatory markers, Il10, Cd163, and Cx3cr1, and induced the formation of lipid-laden foamy macrophages. These data suggest that NM-induced alterations in lipid handling and metabolism drive macrophage foam cell formation, potentially contributing to the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

PMID: 31428777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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