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Disease-modifying treatment of chemical threat agent-induced acute lung injury.

Disease-modifying treatment of chemical threat agent-induced acute lung injury.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2020 Jul 29;:

Authors: Radbel J, Laskin DL, Laskin JD, Kipen HM

Abstract
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly morbid lung pathology induced by exposure to chemical warfare agents, including vesicants, phosgene, chlorine, and ricin. In this review, we describe the pathology associated with the development of ARDS in humans and experimental models of acute lung injury following animal exposure to these high-priority threat agents. Potential future approaches to disease-modifying treatment used in preclinical animal studies, including antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, biologics, and mesenchymal stem cells, are also described. As respiratory pathologies, including ARDS, are the major cause of morbidity and mortality following exposure to chemical threat agents, understanding mechanisms of disease pathogenesis is key to the development of efficacious therapeutics beyond the primary intervention principle, which remains mechanical ventilation.

PMID: 32726497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutics for vesicant-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutics for vesicant-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2020 Jul 29;:

Authors: Businaro R, Maggi E, Armeli F, Murray A, Laskin DL

Abstract
Exposure to vesicants, including sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard, causes damage to the epithelia of the respiratory tract and the lung. With time, this progresses to chronic disease, most notably, pulmonary fibrosis. The pathogenic process involves persistent inflammation and the release of cytotoxic oxidants, cytokines, chemokines, and profibrotic growth factors, which leads to the collapse of lung architecture, with fibrotic involution of the lung parenchyma. At present, there are no effective treatments available to combat this pathological process. Recently, much interest has focused on nutraceuticals, substances derived from plants, herbs, and fruits, that exert pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cells and parenchymal cells that may be useful in reducing fibrogenesis. Some promising results have been obtained with nutraceuticals in experimental animal models of inflammation-driven fibrosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the putative preventive/therapeutic efficacy of nutraceuticals in progressive pulmonary fibrosis, with a focus on their activity against inflammatory reactions and profibrotic cell differentiation.

PMID: 32725637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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